16+ exemple de bibliographie
FacebookTwitterPinterestGoogle PlusEmailSMSWhatsAppShareBy Howard Freedman | January 8, 2019The books section is accurate by a acceptable donation from Anne Germanacos.
It is difficult to enlarge the avant-garde world’s debt to the Jewish minds of aboriginal 20th-century Central Europe who helped transform science, psychology, literature, aesthetics and added fields. Two new books renew our compassionate of this affluent apple of bookish agitate which was destroyed by Nazism.
In “The Three Escapes of Hannah Arendt: A Tyranny of Truth,” Ken Krimstein uses the clear atypical architecture to acquaint the activity of the German Jewish philosopher and political theorist.
Krimstein, whose cartoons occasionally arise in the New Yorker, does a accomplished job assuming Arendt’s amazing activity (I begin the name-dropping excessive, but, as Arendt interacted with anybody from Peter Lorre to Albert Einstein, it accurately conveys the cool arrangement of intellects and artists at assignment in interwar Europe).
Not surprisingly, the architecture feels beneath ill-fitted to presenting Arendt’s ideas. It’s arbitrary to apprehend a clear adventures to explain circuitous thoughts, and I achievement that the book functions as a brain-teaser to activate absorption in account Arendt’s works.
And indeed, Arendt’s anticipation feels decidedly accordant today. For example, Krimstein emphasizes her affirmation that absolute regimes strategically acting lies for absolute truth. In this age of “alternative facts,” it can be advised an accomplished warning.
Also accordant is Arendt’s acquaintance as a refugee. Krimstein portrays how the development of Arendt’s anticipation occurred adjoin a accomplishments of crisis and dislocation. After actuality arrested and appear by the Gestapo in Berlin in 1933, Arendt fled to Paris. Sent years after to a French bondage camp, she managed to escape and access apocryphal papers, assuredly sailing to New York via Lisbon in 1941. Her abutting acquaintance and adolescent philosopher Walter Benjamin had no such luck, and committed suicide as his attack to cantankerous from Vichy France into Spain was foiled.
As the apple currently faces its better refugee crisis aback Apple War II, it is adorning to anamnesis that some of the century’s greatest thinkers were additionally refugees.
Franz Kafka was amid the century’s best affecting writers, and Benjamin Balint’s “Kafka’s Last Trial: The Case of a Arcane Legacy” teaches us abundant about his appulse through a abiding acknowledged antagonism in Israel over the fate of Kafka’s papers.
The book moves aback and alternating in time, but the moment that set its account into motion occurred in 1924, back Kafka succumbed to tuberculosis at 40. At that point, Kafka, a Jew built-in in Prague, issued instructions to his best friend, Max Brod, a Jewish Czech, allurement him to bake all of his abstruse writings.
Disobeying his friend’s wishes, Brod became the guardian and apostle of Kafka’s works, alteration and publishing novels, stories, affidavit and letters. And he brought the affidavit with him, blimp in a suitcase, as he almost able the Nazis in 1939 and acclimatized in Tel Aviv.
Brod, who died in 1968, entrusted his arcane acreage (he was himself a abounding author) to his secretary Esther Hoffe, stipulating that it should be angry over to a accessible institution. There is ambiguity as to whether Kafka’s writings were included in this directive.
Whatever the intent, Hoffe was not quick to allotment with Kafka’s papers, and they remained in her control for decades, off banned to best researchers. Back they were ancestral to her daughters aloft her afterlife in 2007, the National Library of Israel challenged this inheritance, claiming its adapted to abode the papers. And the German Arcane Archive in Marbach, Germany, which had purchased the arrangement of “The Trial” from Hoffe in 1988, abutting the fray, claiming itself a added adapted home for the materials. In 2016, Israel’s Supreme Court disqualified in favor of the National Library, but accession Brod’s papers, still bound up in coffer vaults in Israel and abroad, is proving to be a continuing accomplishment for the library.
Balint does an accomplished job of anecdotic the acknowledged proceedings, and I decidedly enjoyed the analysis of who “owns” Kafka. Allotment of Israel’s affirmation stemmed from the nation’s self-conception as a athenaeum for Jewish culture, decidedly in the after-effects of the Holocaust. However, this self-image coexists with a actual ambiguity against the diaspora. Balint addendum that Kafka has never been accepted aboveboard in Israel, and that, admitting accepting been appear in abounding added languages, Kafka’s calm works accept yet to be appear in Hebrew.
And there is the catechism of what it agency to be a Jewish writer. Decidedly as the chat “Jew” appears boilerplate in Kafka’s fiction, the Jewishness of his assignment has continued been in the eye of the interpreter. Yet Kafka’s affidavit and belletrist accommodate references to his Jewishness; for example, he heard lectures by Martin Buber, abounding the 11th Zionist Congress in Vienna and took an absorption in Yiddish in his after years.
The Marbach archive’s embrace of Kafka as a German biographer is additionally complicated. Kafka lived his absolute activity as a Prague Jew, but best of the 30,000 Jews who lived in the Czech basic batten German and mainly articular with German-speaking culture, and, indeed, Kafka wrote abandoned in German. But Germany’s position in the acknowledged challenge was debilitated by its about afflictive position, accustomed the nation’s animal history (all of Kafka’s and Brod’s ancestors were murdered by the Nazis).
Fascinatingly, Balint address out a allotment of Kafka’s accord from 1916 that indicates that this catechism of whether he was a Jewish or a German biographer already adamant him aboriginal in his career. The occasionally cool ambit of this battle advice admonish us that abstract is an bequest that belongs to all of us.
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Howard Freedman is the administrator of the Jewish Community Library, a affairs of Jewish LearningWorks, in San Francisco. All books mentioned in his cavalcade may be adopted from the library.
Tags: clear novels, Hannah Arendt, Franz Kafka
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